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Wednesday, April 24, 2024

The Process of Fabricating Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)

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Paul Eisle was the first to build a printed circuit boards (PCB) in 1936. Printed circuit boards didn’t become widely used until the 1950s, when the US defense sector began using them in bomb detonation systems. PCBs are now found in almost every produced device, including automobiles, cell phones, and personal computers.

Processes for Fabricating PCBs in Brief

Two types of software are used to create PCBs at first. The electronic schematic for the circuit to be constructed is designed using computer-aided design (CAD) software. Engineers utilize Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software to create the PCB prototype once the schematic has been prepared.

The first step in the PCB fabrication process is to choose the printed circuit board’s material after the PCB prototype has been designed. Alumina, Arlon, Bakelite, CEM1, CEM5, Ceramic, FR1, FR4, FR4 High Temperature, GeTek, Nelco, Polyimide, and Rogers are just a few of the popular PCB materials available, depending on the application and customer needs. Dimensions of the PCB are determined by the design need (I.e., length, width and thickness).

The first step

Is to apply a copper coating to the entire board once the material has been chosen. Using a photosensitive method, the circuit layout will be printed on the board. The board will next be etched out or removed using a photo engraving method to remove any copper that isn’t part of the circuit arrangement. The copper that results forms the PCB circuit’s traces or tracks. There are two methods for connecting the circuit traces. The copper will be removed off the board using CNC machines in a mechanical milling operation. The sections where traces must exist are then covered with an etch-resistant silk-screen printing method.

The PCB board comprises

Copper traces but no circuit components at this point in the PCB construction process. To attach the components, drill holes where the electrical and electronics pieces will be placed on the board. Lasers or a specific Tungsten Carbide drill bit are used to drill the holes. Hollow rivets or an electroplating procedure are inserted into the holes once they have been drilled, forming an electrical connection between the layers of the board.

With the exception of the pads and holes, a masking material is next applied to coat the whole PCB. Lead solder, lead free solder, OSP (Entek), deep/hard gold (electrolytic nickel gold), immersion gold (electroless nickel gold – ENIG), wire bondable gold (99.99 percent pure gold), immersion silver, flash gold, immersion tin (white tin), carbon ink, and SN 100CL, a tin, copper, and nickel alloy, are just a few examples of masking materials. The final stage in the PCB fabrication process is to screen print the board so that the labels and legend appear where they should.

The PCB Board is being tested for quality.

The board should be checked for functionality before the electrical and electronic components are placed on it. A malfunctioning PCB can be caused by one of two sorts of problems: a short or an open circuit. A “short” is a circuit connection that should not exist between two or more circuit points. A point where a link should exist but does not is referred to as a “open.” Before the China PCB is constructed, these flaws must be fixed. Unfortunately, some PCB manufacturers fail to test their boards before shipping them, which can cause issues at the customer’s site. As a result, quality testing is an important step in the PCB manufacturing process. Prior to component placement, testing confirms that the PCB boards are in working order.

ChinaPCBOne Technology LTD. is the author of this article on PCB fabrication. Find more information, about China PCB.


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