Civil engineering is the art of constructing and building structures utilized by the general public. The term was coined during the 18th century, to distinguish civil engineering from military engineering that was the dominant occupation. vpsm (vijay patil school of management) is one of the best college from where you can get your engineering degree. You can also click here to know more.Histories
The school’s instructors wrote textbooks that would eventually become normative works on the mechanics and machines of materials and hydraulics. Many top British engineers could understand them in French.
The engineer who was not a military officer became popular as design and calculation overtook rule of thumb and empirical formulas. While they often learned by themselves skilled craftsmen stonemasons. millwrights.
Instrument makers and toolmakers eventually evolved into civil engineers. James Brindley, who started as a millwright in Britain, was the most well-known canal-builder in the century. John Rennie, a millwright’s apprentice, built the new London Bridge. Thomas Telford Stonemason was Britain’s most prominent road builder.
Civil engineering functions
There are three kinds of duties for civil engineers. those performed prior to construction (feasibility and site studies and design), the ones that are performed in the course of construction (dealing and advising contractors, engineers and clients) and those performed after the construction.
Study of feasibility
Today, no major undertaking is initiated without a thorough investigation of the goal and without preliminary research of feasible plans leading to a suggested scheme, perhaps with alternatives. The feasibility study can include other methods (e.g. bridge or tunnel in cases where there is an existing water crossing) or, once the methodology has been established, the route. Both engineering and economic considerations need to be considered.
The feasibility study includes a preliminary survey of the site. But, after the plan has been approved, it is necessary to conduct an extensive investigation. A thorough examination of the substructure and the ground could save you a significant amount of money later in repair work or necessary adjustments to construction techniques.
The soil’s load-bearing capability and stability are crucial factors in any large-scale building, it is not surprising that significant study of soil mechanics did not begin until the 1930s. Karl von Terzaghi, who is believed to be the primary person who conceived the concept began the study in 1936.
It was at this time that the First International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering were held at Harvard University and the international society was established. There are many specialist journals and societies across the globe. Numerous universities that have civil engineering faculty also offer courses in soil mechanics.
The design of engineering projects may require the application of design theory from many fields–e.g., thermodynamics, hydraulics or nuclear physics. Research in structural analysis as well as the technology of material has enabled the development of more rational designs and to make materials more economical. The theory of structures, as well as studying materials, have advanced as ever-more refined stress analysis of structures and systematic testing of structures has been conducted. Modern designers can not only make use of advanced design and design theories, but they can be able to rigorously analyze structural designs with computers.
Private clients may advertise civil engineering work. However, the majority of work is done for large companies and public authorities. Although many of these entities are equipped with their own engineering departments for large projects, consultants engineers are more frequent.
The consultant engineer might be asked to conduct feasibility studies, and then propose a plan and give an approximate cost. The engineer is accountable for designing the work and supplying drawings, specifications, and legal documents in sufficient detail in order to solicit competitive tender rates.
The engineer must review any quotation and suggest acceptance of one. While the engineer isn’t considered a party, he is required to be present in order to discuss the contract’s terms. He is also responsible for overseeing the construction and approves when the work is completed.
The professional associations can exercise disciplinary control on professional conduct. The resident engineer is the representative senior to the consultant engineer.
The last few years have witnessed the rise of the turnkey or package contract. The contractor assumes the entire responsibility of the project, which includes financing, design, specification construction, as well as commissioning. In this situation, the contractor employs the engineering consultant rather than the client.
The contractor is typically an incorporation company that assures the contract on the specifications and general plans supplied by the consultant engineer. The drawings need to be accepted by the consultant engineer, who will also be in agreement with any changes that are made.
The contractor makes sure that the construction is completed to the satisfaction of engineers everywhere. The responsibility for maintenance extends to temporary and ancillary works where these form part of the overall construction. After construction is completed, the contractor must perform maintenance. The consultant engineer has to let the contractor go without payment. Maintenance is the primary concern of both central and local public works and engineers of the government department. They employ direct labour.
The state-run institutions and universities, industrial foundations and other organizations are all involved in research on civil engineering. Most countries have government-controlled agencies, such as the United States Bureau of Standards and the National Physical Laboratory of Great Britain, involved in a broad spectrum of research, and establishments in building research, roads and highways, hydraulic research, water pollution, and other areas. A lot of them are government-funded but rely partly on income from research and development projects backed by the industry.
Civil engineering branches
Modern definitions would include distribution of energy, energy production and aircraft development water desalination, chemical process plant construction and nuclear power plants. These are all elements of civil engineering which can be addressed under the headings below.
The majority of civil engineering contracts contain some components of construction work. Concrete and steel were the construction materials. This led to the design of the building being dependent on the civil engineer rather than the architect. Engineers’ analysis of a building’s problem that is based on function as well as economics, determines the structural layout of the building.
Military engineers built the Roman roads. The roads of McAdam, Perronet and Perronet were, however, the works of civil engineers. The 18th-century canals and 19th-century railways were both a result of the military’s engineering. They offered large amounts of transportation with speed economics, efficiency, and speed and also helped propel the Industrial Revolution. Civil engineering is today more of transportation. It includes traffic studies, design systems for rail and roads construction, and pavements.
Hydraulic, maritime and hydro-engineering
The ancient art of shipbuilding includes harbour construction and shipbuilding. For many of the developing nations today the creation of a vast and efficient harbour is an early imperative, to serve as the outlet for industrial plants, as well as the essential raw materials, as well as the outlet for the final products. In the developed nations More efficient and speedier handling is needed due to the increase in global trade, increasing dimensions of vessels, as well as an increase in tonnage total. Civil engineers are responsible for the construction of berths that are deeper and along-handling equipment (for instance, for ore) as well as navigational improvements.
The growth and availability of water was an essential characteristic of the early civilizations. The need for water is growing to this day. The need is for domestic and industrial consumption, but in a number of regions of the world–e.g., the basin of the Indus–large plans are being developed mostly to satisfy the demand for food, and often, they are coupled with hydroelectric power generation in order to boost industrial growth.
Dams are among the largest construction works. And design development is encouraged by organizations such as the International Commission on Large Dams. The design of huge impounding dams that are located in areas. That having populations close by requires the utmost in safety engineering, with a focus on soil mechanics and stress analysis. Many governments have legal control over dam-designing engineers.
Civil engineers played an integral role in the mining of metals and coal. As electric power became more well-known and more widely used, so did the construction and design of power stations. The introduction of nuclear power stations has created a whole new field in design and construction.
The discovery of vast amounts of natural gas in substantial quantities and the exploration of oilfields have led to a dramatic shift in gas production. These are just some of the most recent developments.
A green alternative in place of fossil fuels, the demand for renewable energy has grown throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Civil engineers have built massive solar or wind turbines in California as well as the United Kingdom. Geothermal and tide power are also renewable sources of energy, but their use is less widespread.
Urbanization can impact the flow and train and regulate rivers can cause changes in the flow pattern, which can lead to flooding and control of floods.
Modern society has made solid waste disposal a problem. From the huge production of durable items like refrigerators and cars with shorter lifespans, and the smaller, frequently indestructible packages that were once recyclable, they’re today almost indestructible. Civil engineers play an important role in protecting the environment.