The concept of using wind energy to produce mechanical energy dates back thousands of years. Today, wind turbines are the modern equivalent of windmills – they convert wind energy into clean, renewable electricity.
How do wind turbines work?
Most wind turbines consist of three blades mounted on a tubular steel tower. There are fewer common types of double-edged or lattice towers made of concrete or steel. At an altitude of 100 feet or more above the ground, the tower allows the turbine to use higher wind speeds at higher altitudes.
Turbines receive wind power through propeller blades similar to aircraft wings. When the air is blown, a low-pressure air mass forms on one side of the blade. The low-pressure airbag then pulls the blades towards you, causing the rotor to rotate. This is called an update. The lifting force is stronger than the wind force at the front of the blade, which is called drag. The combination of lift and pull makes the rotor look like a butterfly.
A series of gears increases the rotation of the rotor from approximately 18 rpm to approximately 1800 rpm, a speed that allows the turbogenerator to generate alternating current.
A simple shell called a nacelle is made up of the main components of a turbine, usually the gears, rotors, and generators in the chamber body.
Some of the cable cars on top of the turbine tower are large enough for the helicopter to land.
Another key component is the turbine controller, which slows the rotor to 55 mph to prevent damage from high winds. An anemometer continuously measures the wind speed and transmits the data to the controller. The brake, also mounted on the nozzle, stops the rotor mechanically, electrically, or hydraulically in an emergency. Explore the interactive graphics above to learn about wind turbine mechanics.
Types of wind turbines
The wind turbines have the following two types:
1) Horizontal axis turbine
2) Vertical axis turbine
The size of wind turbines is very different. The length of the blades is the most important factor in determining the amount of electricity generated by wind turbines. A small wind turbine that can operate in a single house can have a production capacity of 10 kW (kW). The largest wind turbines in operation are capable of producing kilowatts (10 megawatts) and larger turbines are being built. Large turbines are usually combined to build wind farms or wind farms that supply power to the grid.
Horizontal axis turbine
Horizontal axis turbines have impeller-like blades, which are usually three-bladed. The largest horizontal axis turbine is 20 stories high and its blades are more than 100 feet long. Longer turbines with longer blades generate more power. Almost all wind turbines currently in use are horizontal axis turbines.
Vertical axis turbine
The vertical axis turbine blades are connected to the top and bottom of the vertical rotor. The most common type of vertical axis turbine, the Darrieus wind turbine, by French engineer Georges Darrieus, who patented the design in 1931, resembles a large two-bladed egg machine. Some versions of the vertical axis turbine are 100 feet tall and 50 feet wide. Currently, vertical axis wind turbines are rarely used because they do not perform as well as horizontal axis turbines.
The wind farm
Wind farms are a group of wind turbines that generate large amounts of electricity. Generally, a wind farm has many turbines which are spread over a large area. One of the largest wind farms in the United States is the Hollow Wind Energy Center in Texas, which at the end of 2019 has 422 wind turbines covering approximately 47,000 acres. The total production capacity of the project is approximately 735 MW (or 735,000 kW).
What are the advantages and disadvantages of offshore wind farms?
Wind speed at sea is generally faster than wind on land. A slight increase in wind speed greatly increases energy production: A turbine with a wind speed of 15 mph produces twice the energy of a turbine with a wind speed of 12 mph. Higher sea wind speeds mean more energy can be generated.
Sea wind speed is faster than land wind speed. A more stable air source means more reliable power.
The demand for energy is very high in many coastal areas. Half of the US population is in coastal areas, a person lives mainly in coastal cities. The construction of offshore wind farms in these areas will help meet the energy needs of nearby sources.
Offshore farms have the same benefits as offshore farms: they provide renewable energy. Don’t drink water; Home energy supply; job creation; They do not emit environmental pollutants or greenhouse gases.
The construction and maintenance of offshore wind farms are expensive and difficult to maintain. Particular:
It is very difficult to build a strong and safe blue wind farm with a depth of more than 200 feet (60m) or more than half the length of the football field. Although coastal water off the east coast of the United States is relatively shallow, nearly all possible sources of wind power on the west coast are found in waters beyond this depth. The action of waves, even very strong winds, especially during thunderstorms or large thunderstorms, can damage wind turbines.
The production and installation of submarine power cables to transmit energy to land are very expensive.
The impact of marine farming on sea animals and birds is not fully understood.
Outdoor farms built on the coastal landscape (up to 26 miles from the beach, depending on viewing conditions 5) may not be popular with locals and may affect the value of tourism.