Type 1 diabetes is also known as juvenile diabetes, as it occurs in younger people a few years after birth. This type of diabetes is not common. Type 1 diabetes occurs when beta cells in the pancreas are attacked by the immune system of the body. Beta cells produce insulin, which takes sugar from food into cells for energy. Without insulin, the sugar accumulates in the bloodstream giving rise to diabetes.
This diabetes is one of the three types of diabetes. Type 2 and gestational diabetes are the other two types of diabetes. Any disease or injury to the pancreas also leads to the destruction of beta cells, leading to type 1 diabetes. The treatment is in the form of injections of insulin and diet and lifestyle intervention. Unlike type 2 diabetes, which can be controlled by diet change, type 1 needs insulin injections and proper medical care. Here are some causes of type 1 diabetes.
Cause of type 1 diabetes
Medical experts and doctors are not sure about the exact causes of type 1 diabetes. But they agree on the point that some genetic factor and family history plays a role. A young man or woman with a family history of type 1 diabetes is vulnerable to it. The other causes may be exposure to virus and bacteria and environmental factors.
Risk factors behind type 1 diabetes
Family history of diabetes is the biggest risk factor. The closer the family member with the same problem the higher the risk factor.
Medical experts also agree that presence of certain genes increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes.
Age is also a factor in development of type 1 diabetes. It can occur in newborns or develop after some years. Then it can happen in the age group of 10 to 14 years.
When insulin stops working or cannot be produced by the pancreas, the blood sugar levels rise. Insulin takes the sugar from the food into cells for energy. The lack of insulin in the body creates higher levels of blood glucose in the bloodstream. It puts pressure on the kidney to filter and absorb the higher levels.
When the kidney fails to do the job, it increases filtration through urine to eliminate some sugar through pee. The more water is eliminated from the body, the more need for water. Thus excess thirst is often the first sign of a person with diabetes. Without adequate water, the person is always facing dehydration.
Excess urine takes some calories with it, which lead to weight loss. This is the reason why people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes often face weight loss issues.
When insulin fails to get fuel by converting the sugar from food into glucose for energy, the body starts breaking down fat cells for fuel. This process releases a chemical called ketones. The liver also releases the sugar it stores, but the body cannot use it without insulin.
This sugar also gets accumulated in the body along with acidic ketones. The sugar, acidic build up and dehydration all lead to a situation known as ketoacidosis, which can be dangerous if not treated in time.
Damage to other body organ
Constant higher blood glucose levels in the body lead to damage to other vital organs like kidneys, liver, heart, and blood vessels. The sugar damages the inner walls of the blood vessels. This is the reason why males with high diabetes also suffer from erectile dysfunction. This happens when blood vessels cannot supply or support the blood flow that is needed for an erection.
In many cases in males, the erection issue is one of the first signs of erectile dysfunction. Though doctors prescribe some erectile dysfunction medicines for cure, the permanent cure is treating diabetes or keeping the diabetes under control.
But high diabetes also causes hardening of the blood vessels, reducing blood flow to the heart and from heart to the rest of the body. Atherosclerosis can result in a heart attack.
Treatment or management plan to control type 1 diabetes
There is precisely no treatment plan for type 1 diabetes. The insulin injection is a regular feature in the treatment plan. There are diet changes and some lifestyle intervention plans. Diet change ensures that no sugar or carbohydrate products go inside the body that leads to a sudden increase in blood sugar levels. Doctors prescribe Glucobay 50 mg to prevent a sudden rise in the blood sugar level. Medication is one part of the treatment, the other parts are diet and exercises.
Diet consists of complex carbohydrates, whole grains, fruits, barley, millet, beans, non-starchy vegetables, nuts and green vegetables. Frozen fruits are the next best option for those who cannot get fresh fruits.
Some fruits like mango, watermelon and dried fruits are not recommended, as they have higher concentration of sugar. Any dried fruit will have more sugar than fresh fruit of the same variety. Protein rich and fibre rich food items help diabetic to control intake of sugar.
Exercises are recommended to bring down the sugar levels in the blood. Even a simple walking exercise lowers the blood sugar levels. Low impact exercises are recommended in the initial period to make muscles use the sugar for energy and reduce the sugar amount in the bloodstream.
Medical support is necessary throughout the period of type 1 diabetes
Unlike type 1 diabetes, which is reversible with diet and exercises if detected at an early stage, type 1 needs medication along with a healthy diet. Constant blood glucose monitoring is also necessary to adjust the medication and diet according to the treatment plan.
Doctors sometimes suggest Trajenta 5mg when other medicines and diet changes fail to keep sudden spikes in blood glucose levels down. This dose increases insulin in the body to prevent the accumulation of sugar after meals in the bloodstream.
Next:- Gestational Diabetes Diet
Type 1 diabetes is not as common as type 2 diabetes. It occurs in younger people with birth or a few years after birth. The main cause of the malfunction of the pancreas to produce insulin due to an attack from the immune system. Proper medical care and a healthy diet are essential parts to manage type 1 diabetes and prevent its progression.