Software products of this class serve as software tools for solving functional problems and are the most numerous class of software products. This class includes software products that process the information on functional tasks of various subject areas.
Installation of software products on a computer is performed by qualified users or specialists, and their direct operation is carried out, as a rule, by end-users – consumers of information, in many cases, whose activities are very far from the computer field. This class of software products can be very specific for individual computers.
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Application software is a complex of interconnected programs for solving problems of a certain class or a specific subject area.
This class of software is the most representative, which is due to the widespread use of computer technology in all spheres of human activity, the creation of automated information systems in various subject areas.
An approximate classification of application software is shown in Figure 3.
Classification of Application Software
Problem-oriented software forms the most representative class of software products, within which classification is carried out according to various criteria:
- types of subject areas,
- information systems,
- functions and sets of tasks, etc.
For some subject areas, typification of the data structure and algorithms for their processing is possible. This led to the creation of a market for software products intended for:
- automated accounting;
- financial activities;
- personnel management (personnel records);
- inventory management;
- production management;
- banking information systems, etc.
The most important thing for this class of software products is the creation of a friendly interface for end-users.
The Main Trends in the Development of Problem-Oriented Software Tools:
- creation of software systems in the form of automated workstations (AWPs) for management personnel;
- creation of integrated systems for managing the subject area based on computer networks that combine AWPs into a single software package with a “client-server” architecture;
- organization of information systems data in the form of a distributed database in a computer network;
- customization of processing functions by end-users (without the participation of programmers);
- protection of programs and data from unauthorized access.
For this class of programs, the requirements for the speed of data processing are high (for example, the throughput for banking systems should be several hundred transactions per second). The volumes of stored information are also large, which leads to increased requirements for data administration tools (updating, copying, ensuring the performance of data processing). (php development services in Noida)
Computer-aided design software is intended to support the work of designers and technologists associated with the development of drawings, diagrams, diagrams, graphic modeling and design, the creation of a library of standard elements (templates) of drawings, and their repeated use, the creation of demonstration illustrations and cartoons.
A distinctive feature of this class of software products is high requirements for the technical part of the data processing system, the presence of libraries of built-in functions, objects, interfaces with graphic systems, and databases.
The end-user tool environment contains a wide range of software products that support primarily end-user information technology. In addition to end-users, programmers can also use these software products due to the built-in software tools to create sophisticated data processing programs.
Method-oriented software includes software products that provide mathematical, statistical, and other methods for solving problems for any subject area.
The most common software for methods of mathematical programming, solving differential equations, simulation, operations research. Software products of this class can be standalone and embedded. For example, an Excel spreadsheet includes a data analysis package that provides a wide range of statistical methods, and a solution search package that implements a linear programming method. An example of a stand-alone software product is Microsoft Project, which implements a network planning and management method. This provided project managers with a fairly powerful toolkit for planning and analyzing professional activities.
Office Software Consists of Programs that Provide Organizational Management of Office Activities, Including:
- organizers (planners) – software for planning working hours, drawing up meeting minutes, schedules, maintaining a notebook and telephone book;
- translation software;
- text recognition and spell checkers;
- integrated packages – a set of several software products that functionally complement each other and support the same type of information technology on one operating platform.
Integrated Packages Include the following Typical Components:
- text editor;
- graphics editor;
- e-mail support tools;
- program for creating presentations.
The components of the integrated packages can work in isolation from each other, but the main advantages of the integrated packages are manifested when they are intelligently combined with each other. Users of integrated packages have a unified interface for various components, thereby ensuring the relative ease of the process of their development. (php development services in Noida)
Integrated packages are effective for multi-user group collaboration. Thus, from the application in which the user is located, it is possible to send documents and data files to another user, while the standards for data transfer in the form of objects over the network or via e-mail are supported.
Desktop Publishing Systems Include Programs that Provide Information Technology for Computer Publishing:
- Formatting and editing of texts;
- Automatic pagination of text;
- Creating headers;
- Computer layout of the printed page;
- Mounting graphics;
- Preparation of illustrations, etc.
The multimedia software is designed for the creation and use of audio and video information. Multimedia software products have taken a leading position in the market in the field of library information services, the learning process, and the organization of leisure. Databases of computer images of works of art, libraries of sound recordings form the basis for applied learning systems, computer games, library catalogs, and funds, etc.
Intelligent systems implement individual functions of human intelligence. The main components of artificial intelligence systems are a knowledge base, an intelligent user interface, and a program for generating inferences. Their development is going in the following directions:
- Wrapper programs for creating expert systems by filling knowledge bases and inference rules;
- Ready-made expert systems for making decisions within certain subject areas;
- Knowledge base management systems to maintain semantic models (procedural, semantic network, frame, production, etc.);
- Speech analysis and recognition systems, etc.
This topic discusses the basic concepts and classification of software information processes. Definitions and explanations of such terms as program, software, task, application, subject (applied) area, problem statement, algorithm, and its properties, programming, software product, software product support are given. A description of the classification of software according to the scope of use is given: system, applied, programming technology tools. In each class, subclasses are allocated for which the purpose and their features are determined.